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Topical fat reduction in specific areas of the body is a common concern for women. Ronsard popularized the term “cellulite” to describe the dimpling and “orange peel” external appearance of the thighs, the cause of which was attributed to the aging process by later researchers.
     
 
  The universal signs of cellulite are deficient microcirculation and an increased fat metabolism and retention resulting in an aggregation of adipose cells and modification in the surrounding connective tissues. Excess triglyceride loading provokes an abnormal accumulation of adipocytic mass that may:

•  Compress neighboring tissue
•  Diminish venous and lymphatic microcirculation
•  Reduce local tissue irrigation
•  Cellular degradation triggering local inflammation and edema

The structure of subcutaneous adipose tissue accounts for the development of the "orange peel" appearance. Groups of fat cells are attached to the underside of the dermis by fibrous connective tissue. As fat cells enlarge, the fibers are stretched and pull down on the underlying skin. This causes the indentation or dimpling of the skin called cellulite.

It has been demonstrated that adipose tissue metabolism varies from one region of the body to another, for example, in severely obese women losing weight after the jejuno-ileal bypass surgery, fat was seen to be absorbed more slowly in the thigh region than the abdominal region. These differences lead to the hypothesis that localized application of agents that trigger lipolysis or fat breakdown could help in cases of fat accumulation at specific subcutaneous sites. Some compounds like Forskolin accelerates lipolysis through the activation of hormone-sensitive lipase as shown in Figure 2.

The adrenoreceptors play important roles in the regulation of lipolysis. Adrenoreceptors are neurons that are activated by adrenaline (epinephrine) or similar substances. The relative number of b -2 and a -2 adrenoreceptors on the surface of the fat cells determine the balance of lipolysis in those cells. Hormones such as estrogen influence the number of b -2 and a -2 adrenergic receptors in the fat cells. Through the effects of estrogen, women more a -2 adrenergic receptors in fat cells in the hip and thigh region.

The b -2 adrenoreceptors and the adenosine receptors in fat cells stimulate specific proteins [GTP inhibitory binding proteins (G i proteins)] that inhibit adenylate cyclase thereby inhibiting lipolysis. A healthy balance of lipolysis is maintained through the simultaneous action of the b -2receptors that activate specific proteins [GTP binding proteins (G s proteins)] which in turn activate adenylate cyclase (and thereby cAMP), stimulating lipolysis. Due to the increased number of a -2 adrenergic receptors in the hip and thigh region in women, fat mobilization becomes more difficult from these areas. b -adrenergic stimulation and a -2-adrenergic inhibition has been reported to increase lipolysis from fat cells.

Forskolin bypasses the adrenoreceptors, increasing cAMP levels directly, thereby stimulating lipolysis. The beneficial effects of forskolin, therefore, do not depend upon the sensitivity of the adrenergic receptors, which can often decreases with age and other physiological factors. Forskolin has also been shown to counteract the decreased response of fat cells to epinephrine, associated with aging.

 

 

Sabinsa Products for Cellulitis Support  
 

Forslean® CG

     
 

Venocin® CG

     
 

Centellin® CG

     
         
         
 

 

 

Disclaimer: The information on this website is for general purposes only. Users are urged to check the validity of patents if any, on any of these items for their intended use.


 
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